Livestock Sector In India – Recent Trends And Progress
The Livestock industry encompasses animal husbandry, dairy and fisheries are important sectors. It plays a significant role in the economy of the country and in the socio-economic growth of the nation. It also plays a significant role in the economy of rural areas by providing income to families and creating jobs in the rural economy particularly among the laborers who are landless, the marginal and small farmers, as well as women.
Since its independence, India has seen significant economic growth as well as structural change, which was accelerated by structural reforms that began in 1991. These changes also show in the trends in the livestock sector, which has seen a significant increase in recent years, especially in the latter part of the 1990s. There have also been significant shifts in the production process of the Indian livestock industry.
The population of Livestock and Its Importance
According to the 17th senses for the livestock, their current population is 485002. It is growing each day due to its significance as a source of income, and food too. The significance of livestock in India extends beyond its primary role of producing food. It is a major source of power from draught and manure to support the cultivation and also fuel for domestic consumption. Therefore, by reducing the consumption of non-renewable energy sources, livestock can contribute to economic development. The livestock industry is a significant source of income to farmers as well as rural poor. The expansion in the livestock sector is anticipated to aid in the reduction in poverty since the livestock components are mostly concentrated in small and marginal farmers in rural regions. About 70% of the livestock market in India is controlled by 67 percent of marginal and small farmers, and the landless. Livestock is an important revenue source for rural people too. This sector has a large share in exports from Indian trade with the world. The livestock sector is playing a significant part in poverty reduction in rural areas. The livestock sector contributed more than 5.26 percent of the total GDP in 2006-07. According to estimates from the Central Statistical Organization (CSO) that the value of output from the livestock and fishing sectors, when compared at current prices, was approximate Rs.2,82,779 crore in 2007-08, which is around 31.6 percent of the output of Rs.8,94,420 crore from agriculture and the allied sector.
Production of Milk
India remains the top production of milk in the world. India produced 13.1 percent of the total amount of milk created all of the globes. Thus, India is now at the top position in the production of milk all over the globe. The top five nations in the world producing the most milk include India, the USA, Russia, Germany, and France. In the beginning, the production of milk was 17 million tonnes (MT) in 1950-51 in India. It has now grown by 104.8 million tonnes in 2007-08. The world’s milk production was reported at 693 million tonnes for 2007-08, and Indian milk production is 104.8 million tonnes. Even though the growth rate is higher in India, the per-capita consumption of dairy products in India amounts to 252 grams per day, which is lower than the average in the world of two hundred and fifty-five grams per day.
This not only puts the country at the top in this world but demonstrates an ongoing increase in the supply of milk and other milk products to the increasing number of people living in the country. Concentrated dairy products, such as skimmed milk are the most important export item that together accounts for 78 percent of net exports of milk as well as other products exports between 2007 and 2008.
Poultry and Egg
Poultry is among the fastest-growing segments of the agriculture sector in India currently. The rate of growth has been increasing at an average of 8-10 percent annually. In the end, India is currently the 5th largest producer of eggs and the 18th largest producer of broilers. Broiler meat and table eggs are the most important end product of the poultry industry in India. The poultry industry is organized. the industry contributes approximately 70% of total output, while the remaining 30 percent is the non-organized industry in India. In India, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra produce about 70% of the nation’s egg production. Egg production is estimated to be around 37 billion, the number of broilers, 895 million, and the meat of poultry are 735,500 tonnes. Egg production has grown to 21 billion in 1990-91, to 51 billion in 2006-07, and 53.5 billion in the year 2008. India is ranked as the 5th in the world with annual eggs produced of 1.61 million tonnes. Exports of poultry tend directed to the Maldives as well as Oman. Indian products made from chicken have good sales in Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore.
India has around 8041 km coastline and 5.70 million acres of freshwater area that is suitable for the production of fisheries. Aquaculture, fishing, and related activities have brought livelihood to more than 14 million people in the period 2006-2007. The total production of fish in 2001 was at 5666 tonnes, and it has been steadily increasing. At the present, the total production of fish in India is around 76.21 million tonnes.
This sector is a great opportunity for exporting their catch as well as products from fish. Since 1991, the total export of fish has increased at a rapid rate. According to data released by the ministry of agriculture as well as the commerce of India, the exports of fish and other fish product has increased in the past 10 years. In 1991, India exported 140 000 tonnes worth of seafood and products, but when it increased 541 tonnes, the value of its currency was the equivalent of Rs. 7621 crore in the year 2008.
Meat and Meat Products
The meat industry in India is mostly in the unorganized sector. As urbanization is increasing, so are income levels, and the modifications in lifestyle, the market for hygienically packed meat and other meat products are growing quickly. The increasing demand for food products made from meat in the domestic and international markets especially towards those in the Gulf as well as West Asia and neighboring countries. In 2003, India was home to a livestock total of 470 million which included 90 million buffaloes and 205 million cattle. million buffaloes. Buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep, pigs, and poultry are some of the varieties of animals that are mostly used to make meat.
There are plenty of scopes to increase exports, particularly in the meat of poultry and buffalo eggs, dairy products, and other meats. The slaughter rate for all cattle is 20%. For buffaloes, it’s 41%, for pigs it is 99 percent, sheep 30% and 40 percent for goats. There are 3,600 slaughterhouses in the country with 9 modern abattoirs as well as 171 meat-processing facilities authorized under the meat products order. The production of beef has increased by 1.9 million tonnes up to 23 million tonnes since 2001 through 2007.
In meat and processing, chicken meat is the fastest-growing livestock food item in India. The production estimate for animal meat reached 6.5 million tonnes in 2007-2008. The per-capita consumption rose by 870 grams in 2000 and is expected to increase to 2 kg by 2009. According to APEDA the trade of the buffalo’s meat up to 343817.08 tonnes (value of Rs. 1536.77crore) in 2003-04, to 483478 tonnes (Rs.3549.70 crore) in 2007-08. The export of goat and sheep meat has increased to 16820.53 tonnes (Rs 110.39 crore) in 2003-04 to 8908 tonnes (Rs.134.09 crore) in 2007-08. The export of processed meat reached 986.13 tonnes (Rs 7.63 crore) in 2003-04 and now it’s 1245 tonnes (value of Rs 12.96 million). In the exports for poultry, it was 415228.17 tonnes (Rs 202.40 crore) in 2003-04 it is also up by 1355246 tons (Rs 401.08 billion) in 2007-08.
Benefits of Livestock Sector Developments in India
The animal Husbandry sector provides large self-employment opportunities. If one member of the family is employed in taking care of the livestock 25, million people are believed to be employed in the raising of livestock. This sector plays a vital function in the rural economy as it is a support sector in the economy. Particularly, 70 million rural households predominantly marginal and small farmers and laborers without land in rural areas are gaining work opportunities in dairy. Dairy is now a major second revenue source for rural families in the millions.
Poultry is another method of obtaining food and safety in India. In addition to food security, it also provides jobs for around 1.5 million individuals. The Livestock Sector does not only provide the essential protein needed for a healthy human diet through eggs, milk meat, etc. but is also a key factor in making use of non-edible agricultural by-products. Livestock also supplies raw materials or by-products like hides, skins, and blood, bones fats, hides, etc.
This offers a secondary occupation for a substantial portion of society, particularly those who live in the areas of drought-prone hills, tribal, and other remote regions where the production of crops alone is not capable of fully engaging them. Under adverse conditions of the climate and national disasters like flooding, drought, and flood, etc. Animal husbandry practices will prove to be beneficial for the survival of marginal and landless agriculturalists in this state.
Indian livestock industry accounts for the majority of the world’s livestock resources. The economy of the country and the socio-economic development of the nation is supported by the livestock industry. Apart from that, it offers tremendous potential, it has also made a huge contribution to the agricultural sector in the last few years. The livestock industry has been performing extremely well in the way of production, value-added, and exports of dairy wool, fishery poultry, and many other items. In addition to its success, there are threats too. present that requires us to correct it and capitalize on the opportunities of the global marketplace.